The National Woman's Christian Temperance Union (WCTU) was founded in Cleveland, Ohio in
November of 1874. It grew out of the "Woman's Crusade" of the winter of 1873-1874. Initial groups in Fredonia, New York and Hillsboro and Washington Court House, Ohio, after listening to a
lecture by Dr. Dio Lewis, were moved to a non-violent protest against the dangers of alcohol. Normally quiet housewives dropped to their knees in pray-ins in local saloons and demanded that the
sale of liquor be stopped. In three months the women had driven liquor out of 250 communities, and for the first time felt what could be accomplished by standing together.
In the summer of 1874 at Chautauqua, preorganizational discussion was held by the women. They decided to hold a national convention that fall in
Cleveland and the WCTU was formed. Mrs. Annie Wittenmyer was elected president; Miss Frances E. Willard, corresponding secretrary; Mrs. Mary
Johnson, recording secretary; and Mrs. Mary Ingham, treasurer.
Mrs. Annie Turner Wittenmyer
First National President (1874-1879)
[To see full picture, click here.]
Behind the WCTU's temperance reform was "protection of the home." The
slogan "For God and Home and Native Land" (later changed to "Every Land") expressed the WCTU's priorities. Through education and example the
WCTU hoped to obtain pledges of total abstinence from alcohol, and later also tobacco and other drugs. The white ribbon bow was selected to
symbolize purity, and the WCTU's watchwords were "Agitate - Educate - Legislate."
Local chapters were called "Unions" and were largely autonomous, but
closely linked to the state unions and national headquarters. There were clear channels of authority and communication and the WCTU quickly
became the largest woman's organization in the United States (and later, in the world.)
The crusade against alcohol was a protest by women, in part, of their lack
of civil rights. Women could not vote. In most states women could not have control of their property or custody of their children in case of divorce. There
were no legal protections for women and children, prosecutions for rape were rare, and the state-regulated "age of consent" was as low as seven.
Most local political meetings were held in saloons from which women were
excluded. At the end of the 19th century Americans spent over a billion dollars on alcoholic beverages each year, compared with $900 million on meat, and less than $200 million on public education.
In 1879, Frances Willard became president of the WCTU and turned to
organizing political means in addition to moral persuasion to achieve total abstinence. Willard's personal motto was "do everything." The WCTU
adopted this as a policy which came to mean that all reform was inter-connected and that social problems could not be separated. The use of
alcohol and other drugs was a symptom of the larger problems in society. By 1894, under "home protection" the WCTU was endorsing women's
suffrage. By 1896, 25 of the 39 departments of the WCTU were dealing with non-temperance issues. However, temperance, especially in terms of alcohol., tobacco, and other drugs, was the force that bound the WCTU's
social reforms together. To promote its causes, the WCTU was among the first organizations to keep a professional lobbyist in Washington, D. C.
Today the WCTU is the oldest voluntary, non-sectarian woman's
organization in continuous existence in the world. The WCTU is a founding member (1888) of the National Council for Women (Frances Willard was its
first president) and the International Council of Women in 1893. It is also a charter member (1945) of the United Nations Non-Governmental
Organizations (NGO). For almost 125 years the WCTU has trained women to think on their feet, speak in public, and run an organization.
The WCTU has proposed, supported, and helped establish:
- protection of women and children at home and work
- women's right to vote
- shelters for abused women and children
- the eight-hour work day
- equal pay for equal work
- founding of kindergartens
- assistance in founding of the PTA
- federal aid for education
- stiffer penalties for sexual crimes against girls and women
- uniform marriage and divorce laws
- dress reform
- travelers' aid
- prison reform and police matrons
- women police officers
- homes and education for wayward girls
- promotion of nutrition
- pure food and drug act
- legal aid
- labor's right to organize
- passive demonstrations and world peace
The WCTU has opposed and worked against:
- the drug traffic
- the use of alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs
- white slavery
- child labor
- army brothels
For over 100 years the WCTU has been conducting training seminars for teachers and others interested in alcohol tobacco, and drug education.
Today the WCTU is still concerned that the wide availability of alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs combines with other social problems to the detriment of society.